APA Referencing Guide
Referencing using APA 6th
When you have included information from published sources in your work, you must acknowledge this information fully and accurately by:
- identifying your sources, in a brief format, in the body of your written work (referred to as an in-text citation)
- providing a detailed list of your sources in an alphabetical list at the end of your work (known as a reference list)
There are a number of officially accepted formats that can be used to reference your work. The University preferred referencing style is APA 6th. However, some departments may prefer another style, and it is wise to check with your academic tutors whether your subject area uses an alternative system.Referencing using OSCOLA
Law students are required to use OSCOLA, a specialist legal referencing system, rather than APA 6th. For guidance on using OSCOLA, please see the "Referencing" tab on the Law subject guide.
APA 6th referencing guides and builders
Please select the type of resource that you are referencing from the list below for a guide and examples, and a reference builder (where available).
If you are using the reference builders, please note: although every care has been taken to make our reference builders as accurate as possible, it is your responsibility to proof-read your references carefully and correct any errors.
- Acts of Parliament
- Art, Illustrations, and Photography
- British or international standard
- Brochure or leaflet
- Company reports
- Conference papers
- Government publication
- Law for non-law students
- Live production of plays
- Market report from Mintel
- Personal communications
- Secondary referencing / Referencing items you have not read
- Seminar or lecture notes
- Sound recording
- Tables and Graphs
- Theatre programmes
- Thesis or dissertation
- TV or radio programme within a series
- UniTube programme
- Wiki entries
- YouTube video
Reference management software
If you would like to use EndNote or other reference management software to organise your references, you can find out more information about it here.
Use the links below to download the University's official guides:
More help on using APA 6th is available on these external websites:
- Learn the basics of APA 6th: free tutorials for learning the basics of APA 6th.
- APA 6th FAQs: Frequently asked questions about the APA 6th referencing style
- APA 6th Style Blog: updated daily with more examples using the APA 6th referencing style.
- Portsmouth University's referencing website and FAQs: This is a comprehensive website with lots of examples.