APA 6th Referencing Guide
When you have included information from published sources in your work, you must acknowledge it fully and accurately by:
- identifying your sources, in a brief format, in the body of your written work (referred to as an in-text citation)
- providing a detailed list of your sources in an alphabetical list at the end of your work (known as a reference list)
Read the Introduction to the guide (PDF download) to find out why and when you need to reference.
The University referencing style is APA 6th. However, some departments use slightly varying rules, so please check your module handbook. Law students use OSCOLA, please see the Law subject guide.
Please see the University's official guide to referencing using APA 6th (PDF download).
This leaflet gives a quick guide to referencing (PDF download).
Use the links below for guidance on referencing specific types of sources, and reference builders (where available). A PDF guide for each source is also available on each page.Please note: it is your responsibility to proof-read your references carefully and correct any errors.
Click on the appropriate resource below to find out how to compile your reference. Some resources (but not all) include a reference builder.
- Brightspace: lecture notes, module handbooks
- Conference papers and poster sessions
- Film, television, radio, video
- Financial data
- Images – illustrations, photographs
- Journals, trade publications or magazines
- Leaflets, pamphlets, brochures
- Music / sound recording
- Newspaper articles
- Official publications
- Personal communication
- Social media
- Specialist software
- Standards and patents
- Tables/graphs and figures
- Theses and dissertations
- Web page
Reference management software
Detailed help and advice on tricky referencing questions is available from the APA: