General Formatting Rules

University of Huddersfield

General formatting rules

References need to be consistent in layout and punctuation.

  • If an author has more than one first name add a space between each initial. e.g. Author, A. A.
  • When citing two authors inside brackets, use an ampersand to join the two family names together, e.g. (Levitt & Bamberg, 2017). When citing two authors within in a sentence, join them together with the word ‘and'.
  • Capitalise the first letter of title and subtitle.
  • Title and subtitle are always separated by a colon.
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate titles and subtitles.
  • Include the edition number for all editions other than the first.
  • Use abbreviations for editors (Eds.) and edition (ed.).
  • Use ‘p.' for a single page, ‘pp.' for several pages.
  • Apply these rules to URLs (web links), e.g. ebook, article or web page.

* Do not manually add line breaks into long DOIs or URLs. If you are referencing a long URL, you are encouraged to use a URL shortening service, e.g. Bitly or TinyURL.

* All links should be live if the work is to be read online. Remove the hyperlink if the work is in a printed format.

* Provide a retrieval date if the content is designed to change over time and is not archived. The format is: Retrieved January 12, 2020, from http://... .


See also:


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last updated: Wed 07/Dec/2022