- APA 7th Referencing Guide
- » Referencing - key changes from APA 6th to 7th
- » Principle of referencing
- » Reference Management Software
- » Principle of citation
- » Reference list
- » General formatting rules
- » Art
- » Books
- » Conference papers and poster sessions
- » Film, television, radio, video
- » Financial data
- » Images (including photographs, illustrations)
- » Journals, trade publications or magazines
- » Law
- » Leaflets, pamphlets, brochures
- » Maps
- » Music / sound recording
- » Newspaper articles
- » Official publications (Government publications, Hansard)
- » Personal communication (interviews, emails)
- » Reports
- » Computer code, software and apps
- » Social media
- » Standards and patents
- » Tables/graphs and figures
- » Theatre
- » Theses and dissertations
- » Brightspace: lecture notes, module handbooks
- » Webpage
General formatting rules
References need to be consistent in layout and punctuation.
- If an author has more than one first name add a space between each initial. e.g. Author, A. A.
- When citing two authors inside brackets, use an ampersand to join the two family names together, e.g. (Levitt & Bamberg, 2017). When citing two authors within in a sentence, join them together with the word ‘and'.
- Capitalise the first letter of title and subtitle.
- Title and subtitle are always separated by a colon.
- Use a colon followed by a space to separate titles and subtitles.
- Include the edition number for all editions other than the first.
- Use abbreviations for editors (Eds.) and edition (ed.).
- Use ‘p.' for a single page, ‘pp.' for several pages.
- Apply these rules to URLs (web links), e.g. ebook, article or web page.
* Do not manually add line breaks into long DOIs or URLs. If you are referencing a long URL, you are encouraged to use a URL shortening service, e.g. Bitly or TinyURL.
* All links should be live if the work is to be read online. Remove the hyperlink if the work is in a printed format.
* Provide a retrieval date if the content is designed to change over time and is not archived. The format is: Retrieved January 12, 2020, from http://... .