APA 7th Referencing Guide
The University's official referencing style is APA 7th. Some departments may use varying rules, so please check your module handbook. Postgraduate researchers (MA by Research and PGR) are able to discuss and select their preferred referencing style with supervisors.
This guide will take you through the basics of referencing in APA 7th, and includes instructions on how to cite and reference the most common source types. Please use the table of contents below, use the search box (the magnifying glass symbol at the top left corner of the screen), or use control+f to search within this page.
How to reference
Please read the information below carefully, as it will take you through the essential rules of APA 7th referencing. It covers most frequently asked questions about referencing and citing. This section is also available as a PDF download.
- Principle of referencing includes: Why reference?, When do you need to reference?, and What to include in a reference.
- Principle of citation includes: Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising, Secondary citing, Two or more citations by the same author, and Citing different numbers of authors.
- Reference list includes: What is a reference list? Sample reference list, Using a digital object identifier (DOI), and Missing information.
- General formatting rules
These reference builders will help you format references correctly, following APA 7th style. They also provide instructions on how to produce an in-text citation.Please note:
- It is your responsibility to proof-read your references carefully and correct any errors.
- If you can't find the source you are looking for, please use the search button (magnifying glass icon) at the top left of the page.
- There will not be specific guidance for every single source type. Sometimes you may need to find the source that is the closest ‘fit'. This may mean using elements from two source types.
Select the type of source you are referencing from the list below.
- Brightspace: lecture notes, module handbooks
- Computer code, software, apps & artificial intelligence (AI) tools
- Conference papers and poster sessions
- Film, television, radio, video
- Financial data
- Images (including photographs, illustrations)
- Journals, trade publications or magazines
- Leaflets, pamphlets, brochures
- Music / sound recording
- Newspaper articles
- Official publications (Government publications, Hansard)
- Personal communication (interviews, emails)
- Social media
- Standards and patents
- Tables/graphs and figures
- Theses and dissertations
Help and support
For help with referencing, use the suggested resources and links below:
- Regular online webinars on APA 7th through our Library Live programme.
- Contact us via email at library.
- Book an online appointment with a librarian. (Please note we cannot proof read all of your references for you, but we can help with specific problems or offer general advice).
- Contact your Academic Skills Tutors in your department.
- Look at the Library Glossary to understand the definitions of words used in citation and referencing.
- Need help reading these pages? See HudStudy for assistance such as read-aloud software.
- APA style blog: this provides useful information on non-standard items not covered by our own guide. The APA also produces guidelines on in-text citations and references.
- The official publications manual of the APA is available in the Library.
- Guidance on using reference management software, including EndNote and RefWorks.
- Summary of changes from APA 6th to 7th (PDF).
- Law students use OSCOLA, please see the Law subject guide for instructions.
Guides to download and print: